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The Mátra Mountains have a wooded landscape, with diversified forest communities.

The most characteristic of them are the Turkey oak-oak forests. These are followed by hornbeam-oak forests, then by beech forests at the height of 550 metres in the north and 650 metres in the south. Above 900 metres, alpine beech forests can be found on the northern slopes of Kékes, Galyatető and Piszkés-tető.
The cool northern slopes of the Mátra Mountains provide a natural habitat for several alpine species. The most beautiful, montane beech forest communities can be found on the northern slope of Kékes, where the red-flowered, thornless Alpine Rose (Rosa pendulina) lives. Linden forests on talus slopes and in gorges indicate that this northern area has a special microclimate, with botanical rarities like the blue-flowered Alpine Clematis (Clematis alpina) that blooms in summer, and Honesty (Lunaria rediviva) that can typically be found on rocky areas. Several protected fern species also live here.
On ridges spreading towards the north one can find the Purple Fescue (Festuca amethystina), a relict from the ice age.
Open rocky grassland develops on the andesite rocks that are covered with a thin layer of soil, and gradually-closing rocky grassland grows on the thickening soil, with sites of Rock Fescue (Festuca pseudodalmatica) and Hungarian Meadow Grass (Poa pannonica subsp. scabra).
On the montane meadows of the Mátra, which are rich in species, Marsh Gentians (Gentiana pneumonanthe), Meadow Anemones (Pulsatilla pratensis subsp. nigricans) and some indigenous orchid species (e.g. Traunststeinera globosa) can be found, among others.
On the southern side of the Mátra, the warmth-loving oak forests at the foot of the slopes and the loess oaks with Tartar maples constitute transitional sites, with wooded steppe elements. These can be seen, for example, on Dobogó in Mátrafüred.